The shift from defined-benefit to defined-contribution plans has exacerbated racial and ethnic disparities. Black workers’ participation in employer-based retirement plans used to be similar to that of white workers, but black workers began lagging behind white workers in the 401(k) era, while Hispanic workers fell even further behind (Morrissey 2016; Morrissey and Sabadish 2013). Only 41 percent of black families and 26 percent of Hispanic families had retirement account savings in 2013, compared with 65 percent of white non-Hispanic families (Figure 10). Even among families nearing retirement (age 56–61), the majority of black and Hispanic families have no retirement account savings (not shown on chart). Racial and ethnic gaps in retirement account balances are even larger than participation gaps—and growing. For families with retirement account savings, the median amount is $22,000 for black and Hispanic families, compared with $73,000 for white non-Hispanic families (Figure 11).
The report’s supplementary state tables (available at http:///files/2013/minimum-wage-state-) provide demographic information on affected workers by state. The data show that Southern states tend to have higher shares of affected workers who work full time. Arkansas ( percent), Louisiana ( percent), Texas ( percent), and Georgia ( percent) have the highest shares, with more than 60 percent of affected individuals working full time. States in New England and the Midwest have the smallest shares of affected workers who work full time, with Connecticut ( percent), Minnesota ( percent), and New Hampshire ( percent) having shares below 40 percent.
Martin defines a responsibility as a reason to change , and concludes that a class or module should have one, and only one, reason to be changed (. rewritten). As an example, consider a module that compiles and prints a report. Imagine such a module can be changed for two reasons. First, the content of the report could change. Second, the format of the report could change. These two things change for very different causes; one substantive, and one cosmetic. The single responsibility principle says that these two aspects of the problem are really two separate responsibilities, and should therefore be in separate classes or modules. It would be a bad design to couple two things that change for different reasons at different times.