The rule enforced by the vertical protocols is that the pieces for transmission are to be encapsulated in the data area of all lower protocols on the sending side and the reverse is to happen on the receiving side. The result is that at the lowest level the piece looks like this: 'Header1,Header2,Header3,data' and in the layer directly above it: 'Header2,Header3,data' and in the top layer: 'Header3,data', both on the sending and receiving side. This rule therefore ensures that the protocol layering principle holds and effectively virtualizes all but the lowest transmission lines, so for this reason some message flows are coloured red in figure 3.
The Bachelor of Science degree with a mathematics requirement and primary majors in natural sciences and history is designed to provide students with substantive academic content in the discipline of their choice. The degree provides an academic content area foundation for students interested in pursuing further graduate or alternative route methodology courses required for teaching certification in all states. The degree also provides an academic foundation for students interested in pursuing further graduate education necessary for postsecondary teaching positions in liberal arts at most colleges and Universities. This program does not directly prepare students for certification or licensure as a teacher. The degree also provides an academic foundation for students interested in pursuing further graduate education necessary for postsecondary teaching positions in natural science or history at most colleges and universities. Focused studies are designed to provide an interdisciplinary component that will increase the student's breadth of learning. The program will provide workers in business and government, as well as education, with learning that promotes critical thinking, information utilization, collaboration, communication, and analytical skills essential to effective and efficient work productivity.